The results of researches on the influence of fertilizer system and main cultivation of soil on the formation of sunflower productivity in the conditions of the left-bank forest-steppe of Ukraine are presented. The soil on which the research was conducted is typical of the Left Bank Forest Steppe. Weather conditions during the period of research were marked by significant fluctuations in comparison with the average long-term indicators, which made it possible to establish the reaction of sunflower to the agro-ecological factors of cultivation. The research methods used are classical and standardized, which allowed for objective results.
The dependence of productive indicators on the application of mineral fertilizers on the background of different methods of basic soil cultivation is shown. It is established that the yield of crops decreases in the direction from plowing to zero tillage of the soil. For sunflower, the best option for the main cultivation of the soil was plowing compared with the shallow disk treatment and technology of «direct» sowing.
As a result, during the research period, the highest yield of sunflower was obtained for the introduction of N150 P110 K180 against the background of classical soil cultivation – 3,94 tons/ha. The variance analysis confirmed the significant influence of mineral fertilizers and methods of basic soil cultivation on the formation of sunflower seed yield.
Optimization of the methods of basic tillage and fertilization significantly influenced the quality of sunflower seeds. The highest content of oil in the seed was in the variant without fertilizers for «zero» cultivation of soil. Output of oil per unit area was directly proportional to the level of crop yield. A higher oil yield per 1 hectare of crop (1,77 tons/ha) was obtained in a variant with a maximum dose of mineral fertilizers N150 P110 K180 on the background of classical soil cultivation.
Under conditions of energy saving, it is expedient to have small and zero tillage.
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